mysqld_safe is the recommended way to start a mysqld server on Unix. mysqld_safe adds some safety features such as restarting the server when an error occurs and logging runtime information to an error log. A description of error logging is given later in this section.
mysqld_safe tries to start an executable named mysqld. To override the default behavior and specify explicitly the name of the server you want to run, specify a -mysqld or -mysqld-version option to mysqld_safe. You can also use -ledir to indicate the directory where mysqld_safe should look for the server.
Many of the options to mysqld_safe are the same as the options to mysqld. See Server Command Options.
Options unknown to mysqld_safe are passed to mysqld if they are specified on the command line, but ignored if they are specified in the [mysqld_safe] group of an option file. See Using Option Files.
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mysqld_safe reads all options from the [mysqld], [server], and [mysqld_safe] sections in option files. For example, if you specify a [mysqld] section like this, mysqld_safe finds and uses the -log-error option:
For backward compatibility, mysqld_safe also reads [safe_mysqld] sections, but to be current you should rename such sections to [mysqld_safe].
mysqld_safe accepts options on the command line and in option files, as described in the following table. For information about option files used by MySQL programs, see Using Option Files.
If you execute mysqld_safe with the -defaults-file or -defaults-extra-file option to name an option file, the option must be the first one given on the command line or the option file is not used. For example, this command does not use the named option file:
mysql> mysqld_safe -port=port_num -defaults-file=file_name
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Instead, use the following command:
mysql> mysqld_safe -defaults-file=file_name -port=port_num
The mysqld_safe script is written so that it normally can start a server that was installed from either a source or a binary distribution of MySQL, even though these types of distributions typically install the server in slightly different locations. (See Installation Layouts.) mysqld_safe expects one of the following conditions to be true:
Because mysqld_safe tries to find the server and databases relative to its own working directory, you can install a binary distribution of MySQL anywhere, as long as you run mysqld_safe from the MySQL installation directory:
cd mysql_installation_directory bin/mysqld_safe &
If mysqld_safe fails, even when invoked from the MySQL installation directory, specify the -ledir and -datadir options to indicate the directories in which the server and databases are located on your system.
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mysqld_safe tries to use the sleep and date system utilities to determine how many times per second it has attempted to start. If these utilities are present and the attempted starts per second is greater than 5, mysqld_safe waits 1 full second before starting again. This is intended to prevent excessive CPU usage in the event of repeated failures. (Bug #11761530, Bug #54035)
When you use mysqld_safe to start mysqld, mysqld_safe arranges for error (and notice) messages from itself and from mysqld to go to the same destination.
There are several mysqld_safe options for controlling the destination of these messages:
If none of these options is given, the default is -skip-syslog.
When mysqld_safe writes a message, notices go to the logging destination (syslog or the error log file) and stdout. Errors go to the logging destination and stderr.